An Analysis of Translation Procedures of The Terms Used in English Version of “Facebook” Social Networking Website Into Its Bahasa Indonesia Version
This paper is entitled “An Analysis of Translation Procedures of The Terms Used in English Version of “Facebook” Social Networking Website Into Its Bahasa Indonesia Version“. It analysed the translation of the terms used in English Version “Facebook” Website and its translation into Bahasa Indonesia Version. The theory applied to analyse the data is Vinay and Dalbernet’s Translation Procedures Theory. This theory divided the translation method into 2 (two), i.e : (1) Literal Translation that covers (a) borrowing, (b) calque, dan (c) literal translation and (2) Oblique Translation covering (d) transposition, (e) modulation, (f) Equivalence dan (g) adaptation.
From the result of analysis, it is found that from 7 (seven) types of Translation Procedures, there are only 3 (three) types procedures that occur in the analyzed data. They are :(1) borrowing, (2) literal translation and (3) transposition. And from the three types, Borrowing is the most dominant type of translation procedures that occur in the analyzed data.
Key words : borrowing, calque, literal translation, transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation.
Nowadays, it seems to be impossible to separate our daily life from computer and Internet. In fact, internet becomes very important for us that it is really affecting society’s life. There is no distance when we are using internet service. People can get in touch with their family, colleagues or friends even if they are separated thousand miles just in one click and a second waiting. Most traditional communications media, such as telephone and television services, are reformed or redefined using the technologies of the Internet, Newspaper publishing has been reshaped into Websites, Blogging and Web feeds. The Internet has also enabled or accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through Instant messaging, Internet forums and Social Networking sites.
A social networking service usually focuses on building and reflecting of social relations among people. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks. Web based social network services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, and geographic borders.
One of the most popular Social Networking services in the world is Facebook. Launched in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, one of Harvard University students, Facebook has more than 500 million active users around the world. It has really become a phenomena all around the world. Anyone can sign up for Facebook and interact with the people they know in a trusted environment. Users can add people as friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join networks organized by workplace, school, or college. Something that makes it acceptable and popular almost in all country in the world is because Facebook has already been translated into about 110 languages, including Bahasa Indonesia.
In general, the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kinds of texts—including religious, literary, scientific, and philosophical texts—in another language and thus making them available to wider readers. As means of communication, translation is known as a technique for learning foreign languages. According to Meetham and Hudson (1969) in Bell (1991:13), translation is:
The process or result o f converting information from one language into another. The aim is to reproduce as accurately as possible all grammatical and lexical features of the Source Language original by finding equivalents in the target language. At the same time all factual information in the original text must be retained in the translation.
Nida in Theory of Translation (http://www.pliegosdeyuste.eu/n4pliegos/eugeneanida.pdf), states that Translating is not a separate science, but it often does represent specialized skills and can also require aesthetic sensitivity. Skilled translators must have a special capacity for sensing the closest natural equivalent of a text, whether oral or written. But translating is essentially a skill and depends largely on a series of disciplines, for example, linguistics, cultural anthropology, philology, psychology, and theories of communication.
It is not always possible to translate the segments with equivalent structures. That is the reason why translators often use several procedures in order to assure the translation of a determined text. As depicted by Nida (1964), translation procedures are divided into two, namely Technical Procedure and Organizational Procedure. Newmark in Ordudari (2007) mentions the difference between translation methods and translation procedures. He writes that, “While translation methods relate to whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of language”.
The first classification of translation techniques that had a clear methodological purpose was presented by Vinay and Darbelnet (in Nur, 2008: pp 19-21). According to their classification, translation procedures were classified into two method covering seven procedures. They are “(i) direct translation, covering borrowing, calque and literal translation, and (ii) oblique translation which is transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation”
This Paper will use Vinay and Darbelnet’s theory of translation procedure to analyze the terms used in Facebook Website of English and its Bahasa Indonesia Version as the theory is simple and easy to understand. A research is done to prove whether the theory mentioned is exist or not in the data analyzed.
Problems of Analysis
In this paper, there are two problems of analysis which are discussed, i.e.:
a. What kinds of translation procedures are found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version?
b. What is the most dominant translation procedures found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version?
Aims of Analysis
The aims of analysis in this Paper are formulated as follow:
a. To find and analyze kinds of kinds of translation procedures found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version.
b. To find out the dominant types of translation procedures found in the terms used in Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website which is translated from the English Version.
Research method in this Paper is divided into three points: how the data are collected, how the data are analyzes and how the analysis is presented.
a. Data Collection
The data was collected from English Version and Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook Social Networking Website to find out translation procedures by using Vinay and Dalbernet’s theory. The web consists of three main pages, namely Home, Profile and Account. Each page has its section. The data was collected from only the main menu of each section.
b. Data Analysis
The collected data was analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method is used to analyze the Translation Procedures in the data. Whereas, quantitative method is used to find out the percentage of the most dominant types of translation procedures, this paper will apply the following formula:
X x 100% = N
Where: X = number of data in specified type of translation procedure
Y = Total number of data
N = Percentage of each type of translation procedure in the data
c. Presenting the Analysis
The data analysis is presented formally and informally, i.e. with the presentation of statistical features such as tables, symbols and abbreviation and also by using descriptive method. The result of the analysis is described words by words in order to make it clear and specific and to ease the reader to understand the analysis.
Definition on Translation
The term “Translation” can be generally defined as the action of converting the information or the meaning of a source text, and production of the equivalence target text that communicates the same information or message in another language. Based on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation August, 22nd 2010; 11:27 AM, Translation is defined as the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
According to Nida (http://www.pliegosdeyuste.eu/n4pliegos/eugeneanida.pdf), there are 8 principles that can help new translators know how they can best initiate themselves into the principles and procedures of translation:
- A language is a series of verbal habits that represent aspects of a culture. Thus persons who wish to use the language of a different language community must learn how to use the words in a culturally acceptable manner.
- The meaning of a verbal symbol is defined indirectly by all contrastive symbols. For example, the meaning of traffic symbols is defined by all the other symbols referring to the movement of vehicles on streets. Accordingly, it is not possible to have an absolute set of definitions.
- Within any symbolic system the context normally contains more information than any focal term. This means that the different contexts are maximized and the functions of specific terms are minimized.
- There are no complete synonyms within a language or between different languages, but such a statement seems evidently incorrect because almost all dictionaries have extensive lists of synonyms, for example, sets such as rich/wealthy and run/race. But such sets of synonyms are normally limited to a restricted set of contexts.
- All languages and cultures are continually in the process of change, and such changes occur on all levels of structure.
- On all levels of American English, from sounds to discourse, important changes are occurring, but most speakers are largely unaware of what is happening.
- One important aspect of languages and cultures is the fact that stylistic models have a very important role in communication, and proper adherence to such models is imperative, but highly creative writing is not always controlled by fixed rules.
- Some universal models of discourse are very important for translators and interpreters. The four most important classes of discourse are narration description, argumentation, and conversation.
Process, Product and Theory of Translation
According to Bell (1991), the aim of translation is to reproduce as accurately as possible all grammatical and lexical features of the source language original by finding equivalents in the target language. At the same time all the factual information contained in the original text must be retained in the translation. He then suggests that there are three distinguishable meaning for the word. It can refer to:
(1). Translating : The process (to translate, the activity rather than the tangible object)
(2) A Translation : The Product of the process of the translation
(3) Translation : the abstract concept that encompasses both the process of translating and the product of the process
Borrowing is the simplest of all translation methods. It refers to a case where a word or an expression is taken from the SL and used in the TL, but in a ‘naturalized’ form, that is, it is made to conform to the rules of grammar or pronunciation of the TL. It is usually used in terms of new technical or unknown concepts.
Haugen in Sari (2009: 27) argued that there are some possibilities that may occur in this procedure: (1) borrowing with no change in form and meaning (pure loanwords). For examples: email —> email, internet —> internet, (2) borrowing with changes in form but without changes the meaning (mixed loanword). For examples: account akun, compensation kompensasi. and (3) borrowing when part of the terms is native and another is borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed (loan blends). For examples: internet provider ——> penyedia layanan internet.
Calque, refers to the case where the translator imitates in his translation the structure or manner of expression of the ST. Calque may introduce a structure that is stranger from the TL. For instance, “photo studio” in English is still translated as photo studio in Bahasa Indonesia, although there is normally no such Modifier + Head construction in Bahasa Indonesia Noun Phrase.
c. Literal Translation
Literal translation is a direct transfer of a SL text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate to TL text. Principally, literal translation is a unique solution in which is reversible and complete in itself. For examples, “black market” in English is translated to be pasar gelap in Bahasa Indonesia. Honey moon is translated to be bulan madu.
Transposition involves replacing one word class with another without changing the meaning of the message. The method also involves a change in the grammatical change that occurs in translation from SL to TL (singular to plural, position of adjective, changing the word class or part of speech). For instance, a compound “keyword” in English is translated as Kata kunci (Phrase) in Bahasa Indonesia.
Modulation is a change in point of view that allows us to express the same phenomenon in a different way. Modulation as a procedure of translation occurs when there is a change of perspective accompanied with a lexical change in the TL. There are two types of modulation, i.e. Free or Optional Modulation and Fixed or Obligatory Modulation. For instance, “He was killed in the war” in English is translated as Dia gugur dalam perang in Bahasa Indonesia. ‘Negated contrary’, which is a procedure that relies on changing the value of the ST in translation from negative to positive or vice versa, is also considered as fixed modulation. For example, “It isn’t expensive” is translated to be It’s cheap.
This term is used to refer to cases where languages describe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. For example, an interjection “Ouch!” in English can be translated to be Aduh or Aw in Bahasa Indonesia. An English idiom “Don’t cry over spoiled milk” may can be translated as Nasi sudah menjadi bubur in Bahasa Indonesia.
Adaptation is used in those cases where the type of situation being referred to by the SL message is unknown in the TL culture. In such case, the translators have to create a new situation that can be considered as being equivalent. For instance, “Take a bath” in English is translated into Mandi in Bahasa Indonesia.
The data collected from English Version and Bahasa Indonesia Version of Facebook website then analysed and listed based on the Translation Procedures, and finnaly each group of data that its translation procedures has been analysed will be analysed quantitatively in order to get the most dominant type of translation procedure occurs in the analysed data.
Analysis of Types of Translation Procedure
From 65 collected data, there are 19 borrowing cases found as follows :
List of Borrowing Translation
|11||edit my profile||sunting profil saya||borrowing (LB)|
|12||linked account||akun-akun tertaut||borrowing (LB)|
|13||deactivate account||nonaktifkan akun||borrowing (LB)|
|14||account security||keamanan akun||borrowing (LB)|
|15||your email||email anda||borrowing (LB)|
|16||re-enter email||masukkan kembali email||borrowing (LB)|
|17||account setting||pengaturan akun||borrowing (LB)|
|18||privacy setting||pengaturan privasi||borrowing (LB)|
|19||application setting||pengaturan aplikasi||borrowing (LB)|
a. Pure Borrowing :
“Email”, “video”, and “info” are purely borrowed from the SL without any change in the TL writing system.
b. Mixed Loanwords :
- “Block” —> Blokir
Blokir is borrowed from SL “Block” with some change in writing system. The letter “c” in SL is ommited and there is an addition of suffix “ir” at the end of TL word.
- “Profile” —> Profil
“Profil” is borrowed from SL “Profile” with some change in writing system. The letter “e” in SL is ommited in TL.
- “Account” —> Akun
“Akun” is borrowed from SL “Account” with some change in writing system. “cco” in SL is changed with letter “k” in TL and the ending letter “t” in SL is lost in TL.
- “Photo” —> Foto
“Foto” is borrowed from SL “Photo” with some change in writing system. The letters “ph” in SL is changed with letter “f” in TL.
- “Career” —> Karier
“Karier” is borrowed from SL “Career” with some change in writing system.The letter “c” inSlis replaced with letter “k” in TL, and the first letter “e” in SL is changed with “i” in TL
- “Privacy” —> Privasi
“Privasi” is borrowed from SL “Privacy” with some change in writing system. The morpheme ”cy” in SL is replaced with morpheme “si” in TL.
7. “Accesibility” —> Aksesibilitas
“Aksesibilitas” is borrowed from SL “Accesibility” with some change in writing system. The letter ”cc” in SL is replaced with letters “ks” in TL, and the suffix “ty” is replaced with suffix “tas” in TL.
c. Loan Blends
- Sunting and saya is native while “profil” is borrowed from SL “profile”.
- Both Tertaut and Nonaktifkan are native while “akun” is borrowed from SL “account”.
- Keamanan is native while “akun” is borrowed from SL “account”.
- Anda and masukkan kembali are native while “email” is purely borrowed from SL “email”.
- Pengaturan is native while “akun”, “privasi” and “application” are borrowed from SL “account”, “privacy” and “application”.
There is no Calque found in the data
3. Literal Translation
These following table shows the data that are categorized as Literal Translation where the text in SL is translated word by word into TL by adopting TL structures.
|1||sign up||Mendaftar||literal translation|
|2||first name||nama depan||literal translation|
|3||last name||nama belakang||literal translation|
|4||Birthday||Ulang tahun||literal translation|
|5||Stay connected||Tetaplah berhubungan||literal translation|
|7||top news||berita populer||literal translation|
|8||most recent||paling baru||literal translation|
|9||news feed||kabar berita||literal translation|
|13||edit friends||sunting teman||literal translation|
|14||help center||pusat bantuan||literal translation|
|15||log out||keluar||literal translation|
|16||who’s on facebook?||siapa saja yang ada di Facebook?||literal translation|
|17||find your friends||cari teman-teman anda||literal translation|
|18||who’s not on Facebook?||siapa yang belum ada di facebook?||literal translation|
|19||invite them now||undang mereka sekarang||literal translation|
|20||who’s here because of you||siapa saja yang ada disini berkat anda?||literal translation|
|21||find your invites||lacak undangan anda||literal translation|
|22||connect on the go||terhubung saat bepergian?||literal translation|
|23||try facebook mobile||cobalah facebook seluler||literal translation|
|39||facebook ads||iklan facebook||literal translation|
|40||getting started||memulai||literal translation|
|41||message and inbox||pesan dan pesan masuk||literal translation|
|42||troubleshooting||penyelesaian masalah||literal translation|
According to Vinay and Dalbernet in Sari (2009 : 62), “transposition involves replacing one word class with another without changing the meaning of the message in SL.
|4||security question||untuk mengenali anda sebagai pemilik akun||transposition|
1. “Password” ————–> Kata sandi
(Compound) (A Phrase)
“Password” which is a compound (word level) in SL turning into a phrase (NP) “kata sandi in TL.
2. “It’s free” ————–> Gratis
(Clause) (A word)
“It’s free” which is a clause in SL is translated as a word Gratis in TL.
3. “Username” ————–> Nama pengguna
(Compound) (A Phrase)
“Username” which is a compound (word level) in SL turning into a phrase (NP) “nama pengguna” in TL.
4. “Security Question” ————–> Untuk mengenali anda sebagai pemilik akun
(A Phrase) (A dependent clause)
“Security Question” which is a phrase in SL turning into a dependent clause “untuk mengenali anda sebagai pemilik akun” in TL.
There is no modulation founded in the data.
There is no equivalence founded in the data.
There is no adaptation founded in the data.
Analysis of The Most Dominant Types of Translation Procedures
From the analysed data, there are only 3 types of translation procedures that are found. They are (1) Borrowing, (2) Literal Translation and (3) Transposition. From 65 analysed data, there are 19 cases of Borrowing, 42 cases of Literal Translation and 4 cases of Transposition.
So, the percentage of each type of translation procedures can be calculated as follows :
a. Borrowing :
19 x 100% = 29,2 %
b. Literal Translation :
42 x 100% = 64, 6 %
4 x 100% = 6, 2 %
Having analysed the data on this paper, two conclusion can be drawn, they are :
1. From 7 (seven) types of Vinay and Dalbernet’s Translation Procedures Theory, the are only 3 (three) procedures that are exist on the analysed data. They are :
(1) Borrowing (2) Literal Translation and (3) Transposition.
2. The most dominant type of Translation Procedure that occurs in the analysed data is Literal Translation (42 cases in 65 collected data, or 64.60% ), followed by Borrowing (19 cases in 65 collected data or 29.2%/) and Tansposition at the third place (with only 4 cases in 65 collected data or 6.2%)
(Written as an assignment for Magister of Linguistics, Majoring in Translation, Udayana University : 2010)
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Newmark,P.1988.A Textbook of Translation. Singapore : Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.
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